From the sewing needle to the electric shaver
Natelnye drawings using dyes injected under the skin , appeared in Europe at the beginning of the XIII century . They used the farce actors , demonstrating to the public embellished body. Then the tattoo removed to circus arts with the same purpose . Unusual art has been such a success ,that in a few decades, it is seen as normal. Enterprising Parisians opened the first workshop for tattooing . Masters themselves produced a colorant , which was introduced under the skin of the client for a modest fee .
It is believed that the birthplace of tattoos - Haitiwhere tribes celebrated underwear symbols of majority , anniversaries , puberty . I imported the ritual attraction Cook sailor . The word " tattoo " comes from the Polynesian " tattoo " ( " Picture " ) . Symbols used underwear criminal world as a means of communication and media.Tattooing has become a kind of calling card of the offender , which is hard to mess up , and even more difficult to lose . As tattoos blatari divided the world into "us" and "them " thieves and fraerov . The underwear symbolism laid criminal record , number of prior convictions , served by or assigned by the court 's sentence , thieves suit ,relation to administrative faceted , inclinations , character , nationality , religion, sexual orientation , in the criminal hierarchy and even knowledge .
In the last century the criminal police of the European countries , including Russia , began to study the symbolism undershirt criminals generate catalogs of tattoos and analyze them .But then, tattoos were seen as the only external signs . At the beginning of the XIX century detective Criminal Police of Paris E. Wheelock suggested criminal identification system based on a special sign . card file was created on the Parisian underworld with the names , biographies , nicknames , addresses , criminal connections and external features.Then in the Surete ( criminal security service ) appeared forensic artist who made sketches of criminals persons. Over twenty years of service Vidocq and his subordinates managed to accumulate more than four million cards. It is noteworthy that the very Eugène Forks in the past was the culprit .A new round in the identification took place in the middle of the last century, the development , when in Brussels for the first time began to take pictures of the prison of convicted criminals and make them in the files . The real revolution in criminology spent Alphonse Bertillon . He proposed measure under investigation ( there are eleven different dimensions )take fingerprints and enter " verbal portrait " .
C. Lombroso , working as a doctor in one of the prisons in Italy and creating a psychological portraits of prisoners , said one of the first autobiographical tattoos . Observations of the Italian criminologist entered his famous album criminal typecasting . Lombroso believed that patterns of underwear (thoughas in all human affairs ) can judge the personality of their owner .
Interpretation of tattoos became a common tool for the police in combating crime . But instant gratification was not and could not be. In the study of underwear painting took decades , and a new direction is gradually cooled .He was carried to the category armchair theories. Police has registered a tattoo , treating them as ordinary criminal special signs . Catalogue enjoyed when it was necessary to establish the identity of the deceased , to identify or to identify the perpetrator , to declare the wanted list , etc.
Since the 30 - ies in the Soviet Union, the situation has changed .Tattoos were forced to study , because they have become a kind of instrument of the criminal world .
No country in the world the prisoners were not so blue- purple , as we do ( to compete with them could only Japanese yakuza and Chinese triads warriors ) . The roots of this phenomenon lie in the same place and the roots of the whole prison-camp subculture . Another five-Six years ago, criminalists from America, Germany, France skeptical of directories tattoos and graciously refused the help of the information in this matter.
CIS today successfully export statistical crime in Western Europe and the United States . The criminal police agencies of many countries have established " Russian department "designed to deal with the "fourth wave " . In Russian it is time blocks shootings and police officials are increasingly stumbling on corpses with a characteristic pattern of underwear or painted from head to head extortionist held " camp university " in Russia . Willy-nilly, I had to deal with fine art thief in the world.All information about tattoos Interior Ministry tried to put a few of illustrated catalogs and recommendations to them. This heritage were published , stored and used under the heading " DSP" - for official use only . Only in the early 90's several hundred tattoos became property of inexperienced people ,appearing in mass editions thanks to the creative zeal of Russian officers, forensic Bronnikova , Boldaeva , Dubyagina et al . , studied the body art for decades and who had in their private collections of more than one thousand drawings and photographs.Distribution of stigma on the body of criminals began at the initiative of government agencies many centuries ago . Distinguishing sign is usually applied to the face ( in women - on the chest or upper arm ) , and bears little resemblance to the work of art . For example , on the forehead of the Russian convict burns signwhich guessed the word " cat " Over time, the criminal clan helped detective structures and himself became a mark of their representatives . At the beginning of the XX century tattoos were extended in Sakhalin , in Petrograd, Moscow , and mainly among thieves . Underwear pattern had a hidden meaning and pointed especially to belong to a particular criminal group. This helps to quickly establish communication with their thief suit.
Development underwear symbolism lasted nearly half a century , and 50th goals of thieves the world has its thieves tattoo laws . At the same time confirmed the rigid right to bear a certain pattern according to the status in tyuremno- camp system . The body has become a prisoner of his own business,which read could not everyone. There was a regular battle for the accuracy of symbols , clean underwear for information. " Impostors " severely punished , until mutilation or lower . For the " simulation " of the camp authority could follow even death . Blatari tried to protect their tattoos from forgery , inventing new characters ,not conspicuous , but the mandatory details of the picture .
However, the camp was a painting not a dogma . Visual creativity encouraged , cons gladly applied fine art and photographs , swore on his body in love and loyalty to the ladies reminded of revenge for treason , and thanked the country leaders for " happy childhood " , etc.But there were the characters for which they had to meet the owner . Especially blatari hated priblatnennyh - those who are trying to imitate , or pretends to be a thief .
Many young guys without any secret intention to put out a burst of romantic innocuous at first glance pictures - naked women , cats , daggers and more.They did not try to copy anyone , but only were attached to their violent fantasies . When the guys at the whim of fate fall into the zone , in the first few days while water treatments surprise awaited them . At first they wondered a couple of questions , then had to resume " . Fraer Blatovanny " It turned out ,tattoos offensively exactly resembled thieves signs razlichiya.Obyasnyatsya with blataryami useless . It turned out that there was nothing to stigmatize ...
There are several ways in tattooing zone. The best and unsurpassed dye is considered Chinese ink . But for decades it has been inaccessible to the majority of prisoners .In the early stages of vocational schools have used the paste for ballpoint pens or , at worst , ink prepared from soot , sugar and urine . Tool for administration of the dye served as an ordinary match , to which the thread primatyvalis two or three sewing needles . If the needle was not in a chamber used notebooks or books staples .They unbent and sharpened on a concrete floor or wall . A better tool is considered a medical needle or syringe , in which you can fill with ink .
Independently tattoo was applied rarely resorted to the help of experts . These services were not the small ones, and the camp of the artist took his skills with respect to a substantial fee .Initially, pounced on the skin contour drawing , and then proceeded to " acupuncture " . Experienced specialists applied the tattoo without preparation .
Later they began to use the " screen printing " . On a thick piece of cardboard painted the approved sketch and studded it with needles . The stencil was applied to the body and beat on it from above.After that, the numerous wounds rubbed a colorant .
Any art requires sacrifice . Body art as well. The first disadvantage of the tattoo is shown after a few hours. Reddens and swells the skin , increased pain, temperature may rise . If a dangerous infection is not brought ,painful process lasts from a few days to a few weeks, every body reacts to a foreign substance on his own. But it happened that , together with the needles or ink in the body gets a sexually transmitted disease or other infection . Owner of tattoo got to the infirmary . Reached before surgery ,when branding a patient with a diagnosis of " gangrene " amputated limb. In the worst case, he died of blood poisoning . On freedom , outside the zone , such excesses occur among drug addicts .
Today's mechanisms for " skin engraving " stepped far forward . Use an electric shaver or a special device ,acting on the principle of a sewing machine . Before and after treatment, the skin is treated with alcohol or cologne . Pasta with soot and urine was replaced by first-class Chinese ink , which is delivered to employees IUT camp for a small fee .
United systematization tattoos are not available. Classify them can be in many ways . Firstly -on the subject of drawings , among which there are religious, lyrical , historical, political , pornographic . Often intertwined themes : historical plot is served in a pornographic performance , side by side with the religious policy ( burning crucifix with the inscription " Believe in God, not in communism " ) , and so on . .Tattoos were separated and their location on the body. The most popular place for painting remains his chest . She placed naked women , churches , images of saints , biblical characters , skulls , animals (including tigers and lions ) , hell , grave crosses , crucifixes , portraits of leaders , birds , spiders , stars, camp leaders, knights and gladiators .The back is used for church bells , horseshoes , spiders , musical instruments , skeletons , gladiator ! fights . On hands and feet punctured daggers , snakes , shackles , anchors , ships , besides spiders , stars of knee denied .
And, finally , the head . On the forehead swastika is applied , all the same spiders , abbreviations , short phrases ,numbers (dates or articles of the Criminal Code) . Text tattoos ( acronyms , aphorisms and sayings of the thieves ) are found in all parts of the body , including eyelids and genitals .
You can organize the manner of tattoos and execution of: art , fragmentary , ornamental , symbolic , text .Art tattoo usually causes " engraver " higher category . It requires sophisticated tools and detailed study . With skillful approach to the whole panorama of the body is born . Especially succeeded in art underwear painting French school , the first to apply a colored mascara .
The 30-ies of the French criminal Charles Brigitte has created a true masterpiece on his chest : a pornographic picture in color . When Charles rhythmically strained muscles , tattoos come in motion . Since the beginning of the war Brigitte lost his pride . In one of the concentration camps , where he was deported from occupied Paris,German officer spotted a tattoo . A few days later the owner was killed, carefully removed the skin, processed and decorated with her folder SS . In the concentration camps such masterpieces greeted with pleasure , and have their own income.
Tattoos are classified by sex ( female , male and " heterosexual " ) , sexual orientation ,for hidden meaning , etc.
Catalog tattoos is huge and the tens of thousands . To understand the " Purple " , you need to learn it for decades , and even learn how to "talk" to him . This section of the book can give only a general idea of the nature and classification of tattoos . It has used the material studied ,became public. This is not a guide to the expanses of the thieves , although most tattoos given to "remove" it from blatarey . Perhaps they would stop someone from priblatnennogo stigma , which can cost the health , and even life.