History of and penetration into the underworld
Hardly any other region in criminology was paid so little attention to how the study of the symbolism of tattoos in convictions for criminal offenses . But knowing the value of drawings , inscriptions , their traditional location on the body ,law enforcement officer can easily determine the propensity previous convictions for certain kinds of criminal manifestations .
Unfortunately, the tattoo for a long time been used primarily for identification, identification. For example, in the first years of Soviet power the compulsory registration of tattoos criminals has been introduced for this purpose .Meanwhile tattoos contain a wide range of information , they tend to close ( its symbolism , plot ) criminal in spirit , for his specialization in a particular criminal case , according to the place that he occupies in the criminal hierarchy. If you decode the patterns on the body , they can tell a lot about the tastes of their carriers ,give some biographical data . Most tattoos became the cause of the arrests , but a depiction of the passion , the desire to instill fear of others has always been at the blatarey more caution . Deprived of their distinguishing marks , they would have denied myself many pleasures .What is a tattoo ? This artificial violation of integrity of the skin with the help of piercing ( cutting ) tools and the subsequent introduction into the skin of dyes in order to obtain stable , not endangered , pictures or other images.
The word " tattoo " is thought by some researchers , is derived from the Polynesian " tattoo "which means " image " , or " Tiki " - named after a Polynesian god , according to legend , hath brought the tattoo world . Other researchers believe that the word " tattoo " comes from the root yavayskogo " tau " , complies with our Polynesian " tattoo " and translated as "wound" , " wounded " .
Dr. Gellshtern in " Tattoos criminals "speaking about the origin of the term " tattoo " , argues that this navigator Cook brought him to the island of Haiti , where the locals are tattooed to mark the members of his tribe as a sign of sexual maturity , any special services to the tribe , from the superstitions , etc . etc. .
From the literature it is knownthat tattooing was common in those of the Catholic religion , and Catholic priests were introduced to prevent the transition flock to Islam : on the body tattooed with a cross .
The first information about the tattoo among Europeans , according to Professor Rikke , refer to the beginning of the XVIII century ,when tattooed people began to appear at fairs that money showed his body . The literature mentions the name of the Albanian Aleksandrinosa , nazhivshego at such sessions fortune .
In 1890, the French gained fame " Lovely Irene " ( "La belle Irene"), which appeared showing his tattoos in public places ,which it was considered at that time a rare exotic spectacle .
Since tattoo very quickly spread , especially among sailors . It penetrated in the underworld .
The first drew attention to the widespread tattoos among criminals and considered it as a manifestation of atavism , and as a sign of a morally defective people Lombroso .Currently understood the fallacy of such an interpretation . A serious study of this issue has shown that the original drawings were criminals imitative , were simple and naive . Interest is itself a process of tattooing . Over the years, tattoos have become a serious concern : having the tattoo began to claim the leadership,so as they are worn on the body of a symbol of a strong , hardy man. Later, a tattoo for the offender became a kind of secret language , a way of communicating with their peers both at large, and in places of detention .
Development of graphic symbols underworld gradually. Over time, canonized or audited ,revalued figures . Tattoo begins to bear more and more meaning and is used even for the transmission of the individual thoughts , identify their attitudes and value orientations . For example, if the convicted person tattooed on the shoulders of six or eight-pointed star, it means that in prison he will join the party ,negatively tuned to the internal regulations , and is an ardent objector of work. (Each is involved in otritsalovku should , according to a criminal authority , have a special spirit of special acceptance tests , called a registration carried out to verify that the spirit bear. . -get the opportunity to hold their own among certain high position , no - you have dropped and lose the right to wear the aforementioned stars) When on a leg tattooed hand clutching the knife , knowing that it is clear that this man was tried for hooliganism . .
Further analysis shows the tattoos that stencils, ie drawings,which made tattoos are constantly changing , so valued their interpretation , as a rule, is not possible. However, the synthesis and study for a long time, several hundred stencils allowed to isolate common to similar cases, signs , acquaintance with whom , and will be , in our opinion ,a solid basis for the appropriate orientation and training of law enforcement officials.
Today we need to take into account the fact that the convicted is not very eager to advertise the true meaning of their tattoos. As an example we can take the image of the profile of Lenin. Hardly anyone from outsiders come to mind ,it is a symbol of thieves . And the explanation is simple : Lenin - leader of the October Revolution , the initials form the acronym BOP . Harmless female name IRA stands thus: "I am going Cut Active" . Or, on the chest of offenders very often be found image : Madonna with Child in her arms . Sami convicts explain its meaning homesickness ,for families and children . But the true meaning of the image is completely different : " The prison - house mother " , " Child of the prison ."
The main motivations tattooing are the following :
- The adoption of an unwritten law in their midst persons serving a term of imprisonment ;
- Personal affirmation convicted of that group;
- Vanity,desire to show its relevance , exclusivity , superiority over others ;
- Imitation of more experienced , authoritative criminals who already have tattoos ;
- A kind of reminder of the places of serving their sentence , solidarity ( " a sign of brotherhood " ) with someone from
- Romance prison .
Speaking about the caste of the criminal world ,especially of carriers tattooed symbols , do not represent the " kingpin " sort of comes from the inferior film about the times of NEP - Gold Fix it , pereperchennaya Fenya ... Today's " kingpin " more educated and cultured than his born sickly imagination of scriptwriters and directors predecessors .He is in the midst of social processes , political events , his tongue hanging good , less clogged thug music. He - not a bad psychologist, interpreter , the preacher , the ideologue who prefers to work not shout , and conviction . " Thief in law " never let anyone hit .Why would he do that? For such it is possible to obtain an additional term in the colony . And then for the same purpose around him always ready a swarm of young , strong , stupid even , who are willing to go through fire and water. Therefore he behaves intelligently , sits down to play cards with only equal.
Classification of tattoos - it is extremely difficult ,ungrateful , and we can say with confidence that in the strict sense - the impossible . Attempts at different times , however, been made , but iz-za incredible abundance and variety of motives for choosing patterns , wealth of their subjects , places and technology application and TD and TD most researchers eventually wisely refused the idea.In view of the experience we have made an attempt to classify tattoos on their visual and semantic content , and we are driven by the desire to ensure that , based on our interpretation of the myriad characters drawings in the reader of this book got its own , the informal ,adapted to changes actually look at the issue in question .
There were times when using tattoos to solve crimes . Tattooed composition - gun , Finn , card , glass bottle and syringe - can have a double meaning : either testify passion of its owner to track and gay life , or specify -that's what ruins us . Muzzle speaks of a thief cat care . Rose on the shoulder means the owner met the majority in the colony . Descriptions of these tattoos are from the "case to determine the identity of the corpse of an unknown man , floated in the Klyazma river near the village of Bolszewo ." After fierce surveys returned an unknown name.Men in uniform have done their last respects to him . It turned out that all the guileless biography of forty men was depicted on his body . Deciphering the tattoo , the investigator ( quote case file ) suggested : " ... The victim first came to the colony as a minor hooliganism likely punched in it for about two years. . .He tends to a breach of the regime . He was convicted of theft . I endure the hardships of harassment by fellow inmates . Punishment served " from start to finish ." Apparently , there was in the colony . On the freedom of his beloved woman waiting . I dreamed about freedom, she was able to escape . He belonged to the group of thieves . In fact cautious .Negative adjusted to administration. It intends to continue to engage in criminal activity . I prefer light extraction by means of violence and threats ... " ( " Soviet Culture " , 20/05/89 , the ) . When later established the victim 's name , even surprised ,how exactly coincide with his actual biography read by an investigator from the images on the body.
Tattoos, calling for anti-social activities , anti-legal actions , exist for a long time . For example, the grip of two hands with the inscription "Union", surrounded by a garland of flowers -This tattoo of members of criminal community south of France last century . Two capital letters "T" and "L" - the symbol of gangs of thieves in Germany. Madrid forensic magazine " Sallilas " wrote about tattoos Spanish criminals , including murderers . There were similar tattoos in tsarist Russia .Today, special attention should be paid to persons who have tattooed the following image : skull , crown - symbols of striving for power ; crown on the back - humiliation ; tiger or other predator - rage, intransigence ; snake (formerly the highest level in the hierarchy of the prison world ) ; dagger , knife , sword, ax - revenge , threats , hardness , cruelty ; key -secrecy ; Hangman - Honour the law of thieves ; Madonna - alienation ; Torch - friendship , brotherhood ; Star - rebelliousness , etc. .
But before proceeding to an explanation of tattoos , the most common among convicts , look at ways of applying them . The easiest : linked together on a stick or a match two or three needle dipped in ink,and then they pierce the skin to a predefined printing figures . ( In the context of the detention center of the needle wire replaced by a mop , mounting brackets from the notebooks , which are sharpened on the wall . Instead of mascara used soot , mixed with sugar and ashes diluted in the urine .) Sometimes in the case are colored paste from ballpoint pens or pounded powder, which is rubbed into the skin punctures .
Demand for the tattoo has generated a more advanced technique of its application, more complex tools in the form of various stamps . Specialist for tattooing a drawing on the board ,and then along the contour of the figure it drives the needle or other pointed objects . This stamp is applied to selected areas of the body , the skin is pierced by press cutting , and after that the colorant is massaged . Stamp can use a large number of people .Currently condemned tattooing uses a mechanical shaver on spring plant . That device operating on the principle of a sewing machine , a tattoo is done much faster out more clearly , but at the request and with halftones .