Although the scrubby workshops " scrapers " with unskilled workers and dubious safety precautions thing of the past , concern is growing among scientists about what is happening in the tattooed skin. A new study has revealed disturbing details about the chemicals in the ink for a tattoo ,including some endocrine disruptors and toxic metals, and a compound which has been identified as one of the most powerful carcinogens skin . US Department of Supervision of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has launched a study on the security ink . But, it seems , do not care about tattoo artists and their customers .More than 45 million Americans , including 36 % of adults who are about 30 years old, have tattoos .
Since tattoo shops have become fashionable salons , ink burst into popular culture . Despite the well- known risks of infections , allergies and scar formation by FDA estimates and survey Harris Interactive,45 million Americans have at least one tattoo.
A new study has found disturbing results on toxic chemicals in tattoos , including some phthalates ( phthalic acid esters) , metals and hydrocarbons that are carcinogens and endocrine disruptors .
More than 45 million Americans , including 36 % of adults ,which for 30 years have tatuirovki.Problemy ink for tattoos do not represent anything new. According to Elizabeth Tanzi, co-director of the Institute of Dermatologic Laser Surgery in Washington , the ink , which are introduced into the skin with small needles , causing allergic rashes , chronic skin reactions ,Infection and inflammation from sun exposure . A new study published in July suggests that phthalates and other chemical ingredients can cause these problems .
Even more worried about the fact that these newly discovered chemicals raise unanswered questions about more serious long-term risks , such as skin cancer .One of the chemicals found in black ink for tattoos - benzopyrene - a potent carcinogen , which causes cancer in animal tests. Dermatologists have published reports in medical journals on rare , perhaps , a few cases of detection of melanomas and other malignant tumors in areas of tattoos .Could these chemicals increase the risk of skin cancer in people with tattoos ? " It is definitely possible and requires further research FDA", - says Tanzi.
Recently, FDA began a new study to examine the long-term safety of ink , including what is happening ,when they are destroyed in the body , or interact with the light. Research has shown that tattoo inks can migrate into the lymph nodes of a person . While the long-term health risks of tattoos , if any , remain unclear .
In July, scientists reported the discovery of a chemical - dibutyl phthalate ,common plasticizer together with other substances in black inks for tattoos. In a study of 14 commercially available inks , they found low doses of DBP - each.
" The substances found in the ink , can be partly responsible for adverse skin reactions to tattoo " , -I wrote a dermatologist at the University of Regensburg, Germany.
For phthalates , which can mimic estrogen or disrupt testosterone, most disturbing of their effects on embryos and children . For boys, prenatal exposure to DBP was associated with the feminization of the reproductive tract .In men phthalate exposure was associated with defects in sperm count and the change of thyroid hormones.
Perhaps phthalates in tattoo inks do not carry the same risks , and, like phthalates in lotions , quickly washed out of the body , though experts do not recommend to expose them to pregnant and lactating women .According to scientists , colored inks often contain lead, cadmium , chromium, nickel , titanium and other heavy metals that can cause allergies and disease. In addition to phthalates in the study 17 different black ink to five producers of heavy metals were found , such as lead that can damage the reproductive and nervous systems .According to scientists , colored inks often contain lead, cadmium , chromium, nickel , titanium and other heavy metals that can cause allergies and disease. Some pigments are industrial grade colors , " suitable for ink for printers or car paint " - approved by the FDA in the data table .
Black ink for tattoos ,often made of soot , also contain products of combustion , called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs ) , as stated in the study of German scientists in 2010 . PAHs include ink benzopyrene , which is one of the strongest skin carcinogens." Tattoo black ink entails administering a significant amount of phenol and PAH into the skin Most of these PAHs are carcinogenic and can additionally form a destructive atomic oxygen in the dermis when the skin is exposed to ultraviolet A radiation (e.g. solar radiation ) . " -We wrote the study's authors . They reported that the PAC can "stay in the skin for life " and " able to influence the integrity of the skin " that could lead to skin aging and cancer.
Scientists continue to debate the possible relationship of tattoos and cancer , based so far only a handful of malignant tumors of the skin ,field found in tattoos and reflected in the medical literature .
"Although cases of malignancies , such as melanoma , basal cell carcinoma , squamous cell carcinoma and keratoacanthomas have been described over the last 40 years , it remains unclear what role tattoos play in their pathogenesis ," -wrote researchers from the University of Montpellier in the French study of 2008 " Skin cancer is increasing at a tattoos : coincidence or not ? " .
But the answer to this question is no, because epidemiological studies have never been conducted . And to carry out their difficult. Theoretically, you can find a large number of people with tattoos , and check if they have any problems ,such as cancer of the skin near the tattoo , but it is impractical , according to Geoffrey Kabat, an epidemiologist at the Medical College in the Bronx . This is because tattooing is still seen as a risky behavior . And the choice of the people following this kind of behavior - who smokes or ride motorcycles , can discredit the entire study ,turning it into a monkey work , - said Kabat.
altFDA has the authority to regulate ink for tattoos and any added coloring matter in the framework of the federal law on food , drugs and cosmetics. But management never exercised its right of control ,citing a lack of evidence of hazards and other public health priorities .
" Because the dyes and inks used in tattoos , the FDA never approved , we do not know any specific composition can they be " , - said the representative of the FDA . "Consequently,we did not evaluate them against chronic diseases such as cancer. "
Now the FDA showing more curiosity , and more research regarding ingredients . One of the main issues addressed by the FDA - what happens to the ink when the tattoo fades over time and under the influence of the sun .
Preliminary results demonstratethat a common pigment in yellow tattoo inks - Pigment Yellow 74 can be destroyed by enzymes of the body . Under the action of sunlight , he also breaks down into colorless components of unknown toxicity . Furthermore, when skin cells containing the ink, are killed by sunlight or by laser radiation ,decomposition products of ink can spread through the body .
Previous studies have shown that the tattoo ink migrate into the human lymph nodes , but is still not known is whether the migration of inks health effects or not .
The lack of FDA regulation , and what else do not slow warning tattoo businesswhere authoritative masters get 125-200 dollars per hour of work . Masters build trusting relationships with loyal customers , who rarely asks about the long-term risks of ink for tattoos . Many customers much more concerned with how the tattoo will look years later .
" People come rarely ,concerned about health hazards "- . said Mario Delgado, owner of a tattoo studio Moth and Dagger in San Francisco " People are worried about how to get a good tattoo . "